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Investigating post-school education, training and employment pathways for secondary students who enrol in vocational education and training (PDF, 1.8MB)

Investigating post-school education, training and employment pathways for secondary students who enrol in vocational education and training (PDF, 1.8MB)

One-page summary (PDF, 153kB)

 

Background

Vocational education and training (VET) programs have featured in the Australian secondary school curriculum since the mid-1990s. Around this time, the Adelaide Declaration on National Goals for Schooling specifically recognised the provision of VET programs as a national goal. These programs were targeted at upper secondary students and originally aimed at increasing retention of less academically engaged youth in school and preparing students for employment and further training. However, about 20 years since the introduction of VET programs in schools, there is inconclusive evidence about the extent to which their aims and vision have been realised.
The Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation has conducted an investigation into the post-school education, training and employment pathways of NSW students who recently enrolled in at least one VET course as part of their senior secondary education. In this report, we investigate four research questions:
1. What are the characteristics of the secondary students who enrolled in VET and how do they compare to those of students who did not enrol?
2. Which characteristics independently predict secondary student enrolment in VET?
3. What are the post-school destinations of the secondary students who enrolled in VET and how do they compare to those of students who did not enrol?
4. Which features of VET delivery were associated with post-school destinations?

 

Key findings

• We found that the characteristics of the secondary students who enrolled in VET were somewhat different to those of students who did not enrol. For example, there were substantial differences in Year 9 NAPLAN Numeracy and Reading scaled scores and student and school measures of socio-educational advantage.
• When we used a multivariable model to investigate the second research question, we found that most of the assessed characteristics independently predicted student enrolment in VET. That is, when we accounted for the relationships between the explanatory variables, we still
found independent relationships between most of the assessed characteristics and student enrolment in VET.
• When we compared secondary students who enrolled in VET to a group of students who had similar characteristics but did not enrol, we found that the students who did enrol were equally likely to much less likely to be not working or studying. These results provide evidence that the provision of VET as part of senior secondary education may help some students transition into work or study after they leave school.
• We found that differences in features of VET delivery (external provider versus VET at school, undertaking a work placement, and certificate level II versus III) were associated with different post-school destinations. For example, undertaking a work placement as part of a VET course decreased the likelihood that a student enrolled in VET would not go on to work or study.

Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) review (PDF, 1.1MB)

Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) review (PDF, 1.1MB)

One-page summary (PDF, 208kB)

 

Background

Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) is a pedagogical approach to teaching reading and writing (not a collection of curriculum resources or a programmed scope and sequence). L3 Kindergarten was developed first as a Tier 2 intervention to provide personalised instruction for individuals and small groups of students within a whole class setting. L3 Stage One was developed later not as a tiered intervention, but as a professional learning program for Stage One teachers.

 

Evaluation

The aim of this review was to examine the design, content and implementation of L3. We used three methods to achieve this: document review, quantitative survey analysis and qualitative interview analysis. This review does not include an outcome evaluation.

In this review, we addressed seven research questions:

      1. What was the original research base for L3?
      2. How was L3 originally designed and implemented?
      3. To what extent does L3 reflect current departmental policies and publications?
      4. How is L3 currently designed and implemented?
      5. Why did NSW government primary schools choose to use L3?
      6. What aspects of L3 are perceived to be working well?
      7. What aspects of L3 could be improved?

 

Main findings

          • While L3 drew on some research, it did not draw on the full range of available research into early literacy teaching, especially research that emphasised the use of code-based approaches to early reading instruction through explicit and systematic pedagogies.
          • L3 provides only limited ‘systematic’ teaching and a form of ‘explicit’ teaching that is not consistent with current best practice. L3 does not adequately reflect the phonemic awareness or phonics components in CESE’s ‘Effective reading instruction’ literature review. L3 did not include a scope and sequence to systematically structure the introduction of alphabetic code-breaking skills.
          • Over time, L3 shifted away from being a closely monitored and targeted intervention to being perceived as a general literacy pedagogy suitable for any school. This shift was exacerbated by a lack of alternative departmental whole class literacy programs from which schools could choose. As the use of L3 expanded to reach an increasingly large and diverse range of schools, departmental oversight and implementation monitoring were reduced. This impacted on the department’s ability to identify which schools were using L3 and to monitor program fidelity, and therefore hindered the ability to evaluate of the impact of L3 on student learning.
          • The demand for teacher professional learning in literacy has driven the use of L3. L3 filled knowledge gaps in both pre-service and in-service training in the fundamentals of teaching reading and writing. Many reported that they were impressed with the training model, especially the in-school coaching.
          • Three in every five schools reported using L3 in 2019 and implementation of L3 varied considerably between schools. In addition, 84% of these schools reported adopting other programs alongside L3. Two-thirds of schools reported modifying L3.
          • Teachers reported that a key strength of L3 was a substantial change in their knowledge, practice and confidence. L3 promoted the use of quality texts and provided specific procedures for talking with students about texts. The five-weekly goal setting and use of data to inform practice supported teachers’ reflective practice.
          • Teachers reported that some of the L3 strategies were time consuming and challenging to implement, with some students needing more support than L3 offers. Implementation of L3 also presented challenges for classroom management, with some schools reporting that students struggled with the requirement to work independently during L3 lessons.

 

Recommendations

          1. Consider key elements of the L3 professional learning model for future training.
          2. Clarify how best to program and implement the K-6 English syllabus.
          3. Clarify how best to differentiate phonics instruction in different contexts.
          4. Clarify the purpose of different assessment tools and how to use the data they generate.
          5. Develop a logic model and an evaluation plan for a comprehensive outcome evaluation of future programs.

 

Literacy support for schools and related resources

Since 2017, the department has undertaken a range of strategic activities and developed a suite of new resource to support schools with early literacy instruction. These are available via the links below.

Effective reading instruction in the early years literature review

Professional learning

All school leavers fact sheet (PDF, 315kB) All school leavers fact sheet (PDF, 315kB) or read online below.

Go to the main post-school destinations 2019 report.

 

 

This page provides a high level overview of findings from the 2019 NSW Secondary Students’ Post-School Destinations and Expectations survey of students who left school in 2018, including early school leavers and Year 12 completers. In 2019, a total of 24,912 school leavers completed the survey.

Post-school destinations of all school leavers in 2019

In 2019, 88.5% of all school leavers were in education, training or employment. The remainder were either looking for work or not in the labour force, education or training.

 

The proportion of recent school leavers involved in higher education, training or employment has remained stable since 2014.

 

Bachelor degree
36.5% (down 5.1 percentage points since 2014)
VET Cert IV+
5.3% (down 2.1 percentage pointssince 2014)
VET Cert III
3.4% (up 0.3 percentage points since 2014)
VET Cert I-II
1.6% (down 1.3 percentage points since 2014)
Apprenticeship
11.2% (up 1.9 percentage points since 2014)
Traineeship
4.7% (down 0.1 percentage points since 2014)
Full time work
8.7% (up 1.8 percentage points since 2014)
Part time work
17% (up 4.6 percentage points since 2014)

Looking for work
8.3% (up 0.3 percentage points since 2014)

NILFET
3.2% (down 0.2 percentage points since 2014)

Top three areas of education school leavers enter post-school

1. Business management (6.1%)

2. Building (5.9%)

3. Teacher education (5.0%)

Top three post-school work roles for school leavers

1. Sales assistants and sales workers (19.8%)

2. Hospitality workers (16.8%)

3. Storepersons (8.6%)

What are the subgroup differences in destinations?

Female students were more likely than male students to undertake a bachelor degree, traineeship, VET certificate IV+, VET certificate III or part-time work.

Male students were more likely than female students to be in an apprenticeship, full-time work, looking for work or NILFET.

• Students who speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do not, to undertake a bachelor degree or VET certificate IV+.

• Students who do not speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do, to be in VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work, part-time work or looking for work.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to be in a VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, a traineeship, looking for work or NILFET.

Non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to undertake a bachelor degree or VET certificate IV+.

Higher parental socioeconomic status (SES) students were more likely than lower parental SES students to undertake a bachelor degree.

Lower parental SES students were more likely than higher parental SES students to be in a VET certificate III, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work, part-time work, looking for work or NILFET.

• Students living in Greater Sydney were more likely than students living in the rest of NSW to undertake a bachelor degree or VET certificate IV+.

• Students living in the rest of NSW were more likely than students living in Greater Sydney to be in a VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work, part-time work or looking for work.

 

Comparison of Year 12 completers and early school leavers fact sheet (PDF, 290kB)Comparison of Year 12 completers and early school leavers fact sheet (PDF, 290kB) or read online below.

Go to the main post-school destinations report for 2019

 

The NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey collects information about students’ main destination1 in the year after completing Year 12 or leaving school. We spoke to 18,777 Year 12 completers and 6,135 early school leavers.

This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the differences between NSW Secondary School Students who completed Year 12 in 2018 and those who left school in 2018 before finishing Year 12 (known as early school leavers).

Main post-school destination

 

Year 12 completers were more likely than early school leavers to be in some form of education or training (65.7% compared with 54.2%). Close to half of Year 12 completers were undertaking a bachelor degree, whereas this was the least common destination for early school leavers.

Early school leavers were more likely than Year 12 completers to be in the following destinations:

  • Apprenticeships
  • Traineeships
  • VET Certificate I-II
  • VET Certificate III
  • Working full-time
  • Looking for work
  • Not in the labour force, education or training (NILFET)

Bachelor degree

Most common areas of study for Year 12 completers:

  • Society and culture 22.6%
  • Management and commerce 20.0%
  • Health 18.9%

Most common areas of study for early school leavers:

  • Society and culture 19.9%
  • Health 19.6%
  • Creative arts 18.5%

VET certificate IV+

Most common areas of study for Year 12 completers:

  • Creative arts 18.3%
  • Society and culture 15.4%
  • Health 15.1%

Most common areas of study for early school leavers:

  • Creative arts 22.4%
  • Society and culture 15.8%
  • Health 15.7%

VET certificate III

Most common areas of study for Year 12 completers:

  • Society and culture 16.9%
  • Education 14.4%
  • Food, hospitality and personal services 9.2%

Most common areas of study for early school leavers:

  • Health 17.1%
  • Food, hospitality and personal services 16.6%
  • Management and commerce 16.0%

VET Certificate I-II

Most common areas of study for Year 12 completers:

  • Mixed field programmes 14.2%
  • Management and commerce 10.0%
  • Agriculture, environment and related 9.4%

Most common areas of study for early school leavers:

  • Mixed field programmes 18.1%
  • Health 13.6%
  • Engineering and related technologies 13.4%

Apprenticeship

Most common apprenticeships for Year 12 completers:

  • Electricians 23.7%
  • Bricklayers, carpenters and joiners 17.9%
  • Fabrication engineering trades workers 10.2%

Most common apprenticeships for early school leavers:

  • Bricklayers, carpenters and joiners 21.7%
  • Electricians 13.9%
  • Automotive electrician and mechanics 13.4%

Traineeship

Most common traineeships for Year 12 completers:

  • Child care workers 26.6%
  • General clerks 13.6%
  • Sales assistants and salespersons 10.5%

Most common traineeships for early school leavers:

  • Child care workers 25.7%
  • Sales assistants and salespersons 17.5%
  • General clerks 7.7%

Full-time work

Most common occupations for Year 12 completers:

  • Community and personal service workers 22.3%
  • Labourers 17.6%
  • Clerical and administration workers 14.3%

Most common occupations for early school leavers:

  • Labourers 33.8%
  • Community and personal service workers 15.1%
  • Sales workers 13.5%

Part-time work

Most common occupations for Year 12 completers:

  • Community and personal service workers 28.3%
  • Sales workers 27.4%
  • Labourers 11.7%

Most common occupations for early school leavers:

  • Sales workers 29.2%
  • Labourers 25.3%
  • Community and personal service workers 20.1%

Not in the labour force, education or training (NILFET)

Most common reason for Year 12 completers:

  • Recreation (gap year) 37.8%
  • Informal study or training 23.3%
  • Unable to work due to illness 9.1%

Most common reason for early school leavers:

  • Recreation (gap year) 26.2%
  • Unable to work due to illness 19.5%
  • Informal study or training 19.3%

 

Footnotes

1A total of ten post-school destinations were defined from responses to a number of items relating to participation in further education and current employment. This classification system is a hierarchical classification system, which prioirities education related post-school destinations over particiaption in employment. As such, it represents a young person's main destination since leaving school.

 

Regional differences in apprenticeships, traineeships, occupations and areas of study fact sheet (PDF, 480kB)Regional differences in apprenticeships, traineeships, occupations and areas of study fact sheet (PDF, 480kB) or read online below.

Go to the main post-school destinations report for 2019

 

The 2019 NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey collects information about students' main destination1 and school experience in the year after completing Year 12 or leaving school early. We spoke to 18,777 Year 12 completers and 6,135 early school leavers.

This page provides a brief overview of regional differences in apprenticeships, traineeships, occupations and areas of study being undertaken by NSW School Leavers in 2019. Region (Greater Sydney, Rest of NSW) is based on the location of the school attended by the student. Greater Sydney and Rest of NSW are based on intuitive groupings of the 28 Statistical Area Levels (SA4) for NSW defined within the ABS Australian Statistical Geography Standard (ASGS).

The most common apprenticeships2 of Year 12 completers

Greater Sydney

Elecricians 25.2%
Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners 20.7%
Plumbers 13.1%

Rest of NSW

Electricians 21.9%
Fabrication engineering trades workers 15.1%
Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners 14.4%

The most common apprenticeships2 of early school leavers

Greater Sydney

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners 23.0%
Plumbers 17.8%
Electricians 15.8%

Rest of NSW

Bricklayers, and carpenters and joiners 20.7%
Automotive electricians and mechanics 15.7%
Electricians 12.3%

The most common traineeships3 of Year 12 completers

Greater Sydney

Child carers 28.2%
General clerks 10.4%
Sales assistants and salespersons 8.7%

Attended school in the rest of NSW

Child carers 25.0%
General clerks 16.6%
Sales assistants and salespersons 12.2%

The most common traineeships3 of early school leavers

Greater Sydney

Child carers 37.9%
Sales assistants and salespersons 13.1%
General clerks 8.5%

Attended school in the rest of NSW

Sales assistants and salespersons 20.6%
Child carers 17.2%
Hospitality workers 7.5%

The most common occupations4 of year 12 completers

Greater Sydney

Community and personal service workers 26.4%
Sales workers 25.8%
Professionals 14.8%

Rest of NSW

Community and personal service workers 29.7%
Sales workers 26.9%
Labourers 13.9%

The most common occupations4 of early school leavers

Greater Sydney

Sales workers 24.7%
Labourers 22.2%
Community and personal service workers 19.5%

Rest of NSW

Labourers 27.6%
Sales workers 24.7%
Community and personal service workers 21.6%

The most common areas of study5 of year 12 completers

Greater Sydney

Health 21.4%
Society and culture 18.6%
Creative arts 11.6%

Rest of NSW

Soceity and culture 21.4%
Health 18.3%
Natural and physical sciences 12.4%

The most common areas of study5 of early school leavers

Greater Sydney

Management and culture 16.0%
Creative arts 15.3%
Health 14.3%

Rest of NSW

Health 17.9%
Society and culture 12.6%
Food, hospitality and personal services 7.5%

Footnotes

1A total of ten post-school destinations were defined from responses to a number of items relating to participation in further education and current employment. This classification system is a hierarchical classification system, which prioritises education related post-school destinations over participation in employmnet. As such, it represents a young person's main destination since leaving school.

2Of those undertaking an apprenticeship

3Of those undertaking a traineeship

4Of those who are employed full-time or part-time

5Of those undertaking further education

 

NSW Secondary Students' Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey – Technical report (PDF, 4.6MB)

NSW Secondary Students' Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey – technical report (PDF, 4.6MB)

Go to the main post-school destinations report for 2019

This report summarises the data collection and methodological aspects of the 2019 NSW Secondary Students’ Post-School Destinations Survey conducted by the Social Research Centre (SRC) on behalf of the Centre for Education Statistics and Evaluation (CESE).


 

We are committed to providing accessible content for all users. To request an accessible version of this content, please contact us.

Aboriginal Year 12 completers and early school leavers (PDF, 710kB)Aboriginal Year 12 completers and early school leavers (PDF, 710kB)

Go to the main post-school destinations report for 2019

 

This page provides a high level overview of findings from the 2019 NSW Secondary Students’ Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey relating to two different cohorts of Aboriginal recent school leavers: Year 12 completers and early school leavers. The content was produced in collaboration with the Aboriginal Education and Communities Directorate.

Survey sample

• In 2019, 1,007 Aboriginal Year 12 completers and 695 Aboriginal earlyschool leavers completed the survey.
• For non-Aboriginal students, 17,770 Year 12 completers and 5,440 earlyschool leavers also completed the survey in 2019.
• Sociodemographic characteristics were similar between Aboriginal surveycompleters and non-completers, indicating that survey findings arerepresentative of the population of Aboriginal recent school leavers.
• Response rates for both cohorts have remained fairly stable over time,ranging from 43.2% to 50.7% for Aboriginal Year 12 completers and 21% to 26.7% for Aboriginal early school leavers.

Post-school destinations of Aboriginal school leavers in 2019

In 2019, 82.3% of Aboriginal Year 12 completers were in education, training or employment and 63.8% of Aboriginal early school leavers were in education, training or employment.

2019-post-school-destinations-graph-1

Post-school destinations of non-Aboriginal school leavers in 2019

In 2019, 92% of non-Aboriginal Year 12 completers were in education, training or employment and 81.3% of non-Aboriginal early school leavers were in edcuation, training or employment.

2019-post-school-destinations-graph-2

Post-school destinations of Aboriginal Year 12 completers in 2019

The post-school destinations for Aboriginal Year 12 completers have remained relatively stable over time.

Bachelor degree
24.6% (up 1.6 percentage points since 2014)
VET Cert IV+
6% (down 0.9 percentage pointssince 2014)
VET Cert III
5.4% (down 0.7 percentage points since 2014)
VET Cert I-II
2% (down 2.5 percentage points since 2014)
Apprenticeship
6.3% (up 1.9 percentage points since 2014)
Traineeship
7% (down 1.4 percentage points since 2014)
Full time work
9.9% (down 0.2 percentage points since 2014)
Part time work
21% (up 3.2 percentage points since 2014)

Top five areas of education Aboriginal Year 12 completers entered post-school in 2019

1. Teacher education

2. Nursing

3. Business and management

4. Human welfare and services

5. Communication and media studies

Top five work roles Aboriginal Year 12 completers entered post-school in 2019

1. Hospitality worker

2. Retail sales assistant

3. Store assistant and warehouse assistant

4. Carer and aide

5. Sales support worker

Post-school destinations of Aboriginal early school leavers in 2019

The proportion of Aboriginal early school leavers in employment has increased over time, while the proportion of Aboriginal early school leavers looking for work has decreased over time.

Bachelor degree
0.4% (up 0.1 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert IV+
2.5% (down 1.1 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert III
9.6% (up 3.2 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert I-II
4.9% (down 6.2 percentage points since 2014)

Apprenticeship
16% (up 2.5 percentage points since 2014)

Traineeship
7.5% (up 2.7 percentage points since 2014)

Full time work
8.3% (up 5.1 percentage points since 2014)

Part time work
14.6% (up 3.3 percentage points since 2014)

Top five areas of education Aboriginal early school leavers entered post-school in 2019

1. Building

2. Human welfare studies and services

3. Personal services (such as hairdressing, beauty therapy)

4. Food and hospitality

5. Automotive engineering and technology

Top five work roles Aboriginal early school leavers entered post-school in 2019

1. Retail sales assistant

2. Food preparation assistant

3. Store assistant and warehouse assistant

4. Hospitality worker

5. Sales support worker

In education or training

2019-post-school-destinations-graph-3

The proportion of:
• Aboriginal Year 12 completers
• Aboriginal early school leavers
• non-Aboriginal early school leavers
in education or training has remained stable over time.

The proportion of non-Aboriginal Year 12 completers in education or training has decreased over time.

Education changes: Aboriginal Year 12 completers

7.9 percentage point decrease entering business and management studies since 2014 (from 11.7% to 3.8%).
4.9 percentage point decrease entering human welfare studies and services since 2014 (from 8.6% to 3.7%).

Education changes: Aboriginal early school leavers

6.8 percentage point increase entering building studies since 2014 (from 10.3% to 17.1%).
6.3 percentage point decrease entering business and management studies since 2014 (from 9.7% to 3.4%).

In employment

2019-post-school-destinations-graph-4

The proportion of:
• Aboriginal early school leavers
• non-Aboriginal Year 12 completers
• non-Aboriginal early school leavers
in employment has increased over time.

The proportion of Aboriginal Year 12 completers in employment has remained stable over time.

Employment changes: Aboriginal Year 12 completers

8.1 percentage point decrease entering a retail sales assistantrole since 2014 (from 23.8% to 15.7%).
6.8 percentage point increase entering a hospitality role since 2014 (from 11.8% to 18.7% of employed completers).

Employment changes: Aboriginal early school leavers

6.6 percentage point decrease entering a farm, forestry and gardern worker role since 2014 (from 10.8% to 4.2%).
6 percentage point increase entering a store assistant and warehouse assistant role since 2014 (from 4.6% to 10.6%).

What are the socio-demographic characteristic differences in destinations of Aboriginal Year 12 completers and Aboriginal early school leavers?

Year 12 completers

Females more likely to be in a bachelor degree, traineeship or VET Cert III.
Males more likely to be in an apprenticeship.
Higher parental SES more likely to be in a bachelor degree.
Lower parental SES more likely to be looking for work.
Government school students more liekly to be VET Cert III, looking for work or not in the labour force, education or training.
Non-government school students more likely to be in a bachelor degree.
• Students living in Greater Sydney more likely than those living in the rest of NSW to be in an apprenticeship.

Early school leavers

Females more likely to be in a VET Cert III ot VET Cert IV+.
Males more likely to be in an apprenticeship.
Lower parental SES more likely to be not in the labour force, education or training.
Government school students more likely to be looking for work.
Non-government school students more likely to be in an apprenticeship
• Students living in Greater Sydney more likely than those living in the rest of NSW to be in an apprenticeship.
• Students living in the rest of NSW more likely to be looking for work.

NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences 2019 report (PDF, 962kB)NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences 2019 report (PDF, 962kB) or read online below

Fact sheets

Regional differences in apprenticeships, traineeships, occupations and areas of study

All school leavers

Comparison of Year 12 completers and early school leavers

Aboriginal Year 12 completers and early school leavers

Full paper

The NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey collects information about students’ main destination1 in the year after completing Year 12 or leaving school early. The survey provides information on education pathways, attainments and destinations of young people in NSW and informs policy making related to students’ post-school education, training and employment.

In 2019, all students who left school in 2018 before finishing Year 12 (known as early school leavers) were invited to complete the survey about their current situation. Among those who finished Year 12, all Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students and students who attended Connected Communities schools were invited to complete the survey. A random sample of the other students who completed Year 12 were also invited. A total of 39,336 Year 12 completers and 19,272 early school leavers were invited to take part in the 2019 survey. Responses were received from 18,777 Year 12 completers and 6,135 early school leavers and are analysed in this report2.

Year 12 completers

 

Two thirds (65.7%) of 2018 Year 12 completers were in some form of education or training in 2019. The main post-school destination for this cohort continued to be a Bachelor degree (48.4%). One-quarter (26.1%) were employed (8.4% full-time and 17.7% part-time), while a smaller proportion were looking for work (5.7%), or not in the labour force, education or training (NILFET*; 2.5%. *Not in the labour force means that a person is not working and not looking for work).

Early school leavers

 

In 2019, the main post-school destinations among 2018 early school leavers were substantially different from Year 12 completers. More than half (54.1%) were undertaking some form of education or training. The most common post-school destination among this cohort was an apprenticeship (29.1%). A quarter of early school leavers were employed (9.8% full-time and 15.2% part-time), while a smaller proportion were looking for work (15.7%), or NILFET (5.2%).

 

Year 12 completers – where are they now?

In education or training

 

Two-thirds (65.7%) of Year 12 completers were in education or training in 2019. This is fewer than in each year since 2014.
There has been a 3.5 percentage point decrease since 2018.

Bachelor

48.4% (down 4.1 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert IV+

5.1% (down 2.3 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert III

2.1% (down 0.2 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert I-II

1.0% (down 0.8 percentage points since 2014)

Apprenticeship

5.1% (up 0.2 percentage points since 2014)

Traineeship

3.9% (down 0.5 percentage points since 2014)

Bachelor degrees were the most popular destination among Year 12 completers despite being down 4.1 percentage points since 2014.

Participation in VET certificate IV+ has also decreased since 2014

For those undertaking a Bachelor degree or VET certificate

What were they studying?

• Society and culture

21.4% (down 2.1 percentage points since 2014)

• Management and commerce

19.0% (down 3.1 percentage points since 2014)

• Health

18.3% (up 3.2 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be studying society and culture, health, creative arts or education.
Males were more likely than females to be studying management and commerce, engineering, natural and physical sciences.

The most common study areas by level of course were:
• Bachelor degree – Society and culture (22.6%).
• VET certificate IV+ – Creative arts (18.3%).
• VET certificate III – Health (14.6%).
• VET certificate I-II – Mixed fields programmes (14.7%).

For those doing an apprenticeship

What type of apprenticeship?

• Electrician

23.7% (up 7.4 percentage points since 2014)

• Bricklaying, carpentry and joinery

17.9% (down 4.5 percentage points since 2014)

• Fabrication engineering trades workers

10.2% (up 8.6 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be undertaking an apprenticeship in food trade.
Males were more likely than females to be undertaking an apprenticeship as an electrician or fabrication engineering trades worker.

For those doing a traineeship

What type of traineeships?

• Childcare

26.6% (up 9.7 percentage points since 2014)

• General clerk

13.6% (up 4.3 percentage points since 2014)

• Sales person or assistant

10.5% (down 14.1 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be undertaking a traineeship in childcare or as a general clerk.
Males were more likely than females to be undertaking a traineeship as an accountant, auditor and company secretary or as a hospitality worker.

In employment and not in education

 

Full-time work 

8.4% (up 1.8 percentage points since 2014)

Part-time work

17.7% (up 5.2 percentage points since 2014)

One-quarter (26.1%) of Year 12 completers were employed and not in education in 2019. Participation in full-time and part-time employment has increased since 2014.

Not in education, training or employment – Looking for work

 

Looking for work

5.7% (up 0.2 percentage points since 2014)

One in twenty (5.7%) Year 12 completers were looking for work. This rate remains similar to 2014.

Not in education, training or employment – NILFET

 

NILFET

2.5% (down 0.1 percentage points since 2014)

The proportion of Year 12 completers who were NILFET remains unchanged since 2018 (2.5%), and similar to 2014.

For those in employment

What jobs are they doing?

• Community and personal service workers

27.6% (down 0.4 percentage points since 2014)

• Sales workers

26.2% (down 6.7 percentage points since 2014)

• Professional

11.1% (down 3.8 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be working as community and personal services workers, sales workers, or clerical and admin workers.
Males were more likely than females to be working as machinery operators and drivers, labourers, or technicians and trades workers.

For those not in the labour force, education or training

Main reason

• Recreation (including gap year, nothing)

37.8% (down 7.7 percentage points since 2014)

• Informal study or training

23.2% (down 2.2 percentage points since 2014)

• Unable to work due to illness

9.1% (down 1.1 percentage points since 2014)

Among those who were not in the labour force, education or training, there were no differences in the broad main activity categories for males and females.
Males were however more likely than females to report recreational activities as their main activity.

For those who deferred further education

Almost one-third (29.0%) of Year 12 completers who were NILFET indicated they were enrolled in a course of study but have deferred it.

Those who were employed deferred further education at a similar rate:
• 30.0% full-time employment.
• 24.9% part-time employment.

Those who were looking for work were less likely to have deferred a course than those who were NILFET (17.7%).

What are the subgroup differences in destinations?

Female students were more likely than male students to undertake a bachelor degree, traineeship or VET certificate III

Male students were more likely than female students to be in an apprenticeship, NILFET or looking for work.

Government school students were more likely than non-government school students to be in a VET certificate IV+, VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, part-time work, looking for work and NILFET.

Non-government school students were more likely than government school students to undertake a bachelor degree.

Higher parental socioeconomic status (SES)3 students were more likely than lower parental SES students to undertake a bachelor degree.

Lower parental SES students were more likely than higher parental SES students to be in VET certificate IV+, VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work, part-time work or looking for work.

• Students who speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do not, to undertake a bachelor degree or VET certificate IV+.

• Students who do not speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do not, to be in VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work or part-time work.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to be in a VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, a traineeship, part-time work, looking for work or NILFET.

Non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to undertake a bachelor degree.

• Students living in Greater Sydney were more likely than students living in the rest of NSW to undertake a bachelor degree.

• Students living in the rest of NSW were more likely than students living in Greater Sydney to be in a VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, an apprenticeship, traineeship, full-time work, part-time work or looking for work.

 

Early school leavers – where are they now?

In education or training

 

 

 

Over half (54.2%) of 2018 early school leavers were in education or training in 2019. This is fewer than in 2018 (57.1%) but similar to the proportion over the period from 2015 to 2017.

Bachelor

1.5% (down 0.6 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert IV+

5.9% (down 1.9 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert III

7.3% (down 0.3 percentage points since 2014)

VET Cert I-II

3.2% (down 3.8 percentage points since 2014)

Apprenticeship

29.1% (up 2.9 percentage points since 2014)

Traineeship

7.1% (up 0.6 percentage points since 2014)

Apprenticeships continued to be the most popular destination among early school leavers. Despite being up 2.9 percentage points since 2014, apprenticeship participation is down 3.3 percentage points compared with 2018 (32.4%).
Participation in VET certificates I-II and IV+ has decreased since 2014.

For those undertaking a bachelor degree or VET certificate

What are they studying?

• Health

16.3% (up 9.0 percentage points since 2014)

• Management and commerce

13.6% (down 5.0 percentage points since 2014)

• Society and culture

13.0% (up 0.7 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be studying health, society and culture, and food
hospitality and personal services.

Males were more likely than females to study information technology.

The most common study areas by level of course were:
• Bachelor degree – Society and culture (19.9%).
• VET certificate IV+ – Creative arts (22.4%).
• VET certificate III – Health (17.1%).
• VET certificate I-II – Mixed fields programmes (18.1%).

For those doing an apprenticeship

What type of apprenticeships?

• Bricklaying, carpentry and joinery

21.7% (up 3.2 percentage points since 2014)

• Electrician

13.9% (up 4.6 percentage points since 2014)

• Automotive electrician and mechanics

13.4% (down 1.6 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be undertaking an apprenticeship in food trade or hairdressing.
Males were more likely than females to be undertaking an apprenticeship in automotive and engineering mechanics, bricklaying, carpentry and joinery or as an electrician.

For those doing a traineeship

What type of traineeships?

• Childcare

25.7% (up 10.5 percentage points since 2014)

• Sales person or assistant

17.5% (down 7.4 percentage points since 2014)

• General clerk

7.7% (down 0.4 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be undertaking a traineeship as a general clerk.
Males were more likely than females to be undertaking a traineeship as a farm, forestry or garden worker.

In employment

 

 

 

Full-time work 

9.8% (up 1.5 percentage points since 2014)

Part-time work

15.2% (up 3.0 percentage points since 2014)

One-quarter (25.0%) of 2018 early school leavers were employed and not in education in 2019.
Participation in part-time employment has increased since 2014 but remains relatively unchanged from 2018.

 

Not in education, training or employment – Looking for work

 

Looking for work

15.7% (down 1.5 percentage points since 2014)

One-in-six (15.7%) early school leavers were looking for work; down 1.5 percentage points since 2014 but up 2.8 percentage points since 2018.

 

Not in education, training or employment – NILFET

 

 

NILFET

5.2% (down 1.2 percentage points since 2014)

The proportion of 2018 early school leavers who were NILFET is also down since 2014, accounting for one-in-twenty (5.2%) early school leavers in 2019.

For those in employment

What jobs are they doing?

• Labourers

25.5% (down 2.1 percentage points since 2014)

• Sales workers

24.7% (down 7.0 percentage points since 2014)

• Community and personal service workers

20.8% (up 4.5 percentage points since 2014)

Females were more likely than males to be working as community and personal services workers, sales workers, or clerical and admin workers.
Males were more likely than females to be working as labourers or machinery operators and drivers.

For those not in the labour force, education or training

Main reason

• Recreation (including gap year, nothing)

26.2% (down 2.2 percentage points since 2014)

• Unable to work due to illness

19.5% (down 10.5 percentage points since 2014)

• Informal study or training

19.3% (down 4.0 percentage points since 2014)

Among those who were not in the labour force, education or training, there were no differences in the broad main activity categories for males and females.
Males were however more likely than females to report recreational activities as their main activity.

For those who deferred further education

One-in-twenty (5.3%) of early school leavers who were NILFET indicated they were enrolled in a course of study but had deferred it.

Other cohorts had deferred at a similar rate:
• 3.6% full-time employment.
• 4.7% part-time employment.

• 4.8% looking for work.

What are the subgroup differences in destinations?

Female students were more likely than male students to be in a bachelor degree, VET certificate IV+, VET certificate III, VET certificate I-II, traineeship, part-time work or NILFET.

Male students were more likely than female students to be undertaking an apprenticeship.

• Students who left school before the age of 17 years were more likely than those who left school aged 17 years or older to undertake a VET certificate IV+, apprenticeship or traineeship.

• Students who left school aged 17 years or older were more likely than those who left school before the age of 17 years to be in a bachelor degree, full-time work, part-time work, looking for work or NILFET.

Government school students were more likely than non-government school students to be in part-time work, looking for work or NILFET.

Non-government school students were more likely than government school students to undertake a bachelor degree, VET certificate IV+ or apprenticeship.

Higher parental socioeconomic status (SES)3 students were more likely than lower parental SES students to undertake a bachelor degree, VET certificate IV+ or VET certificate I-II

Lower parental SES students were more likely than higher parental SES students to be looking for work.

• Students who speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do not, to be undertaking a VET certificate IV+ or looking for work.

• Students who do not speak a language other than English at home were more likely than those who do, to be undertaking an apprenticeship or traineeship.

Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to be looking for work or NILFET.

Non-Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students were more likely than Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students to undertake be in a VET certificate IV+ or apprenticeship.

• Students living in Greater Sydney were more likely than students living in the rest of NSW to undertake a bachelor degree or VET certificate IV+.

• Students living in the rest of NSW were more likely than students living in Greater Sydney to be in a VET certificate III or part-time work.

 

Method

This report provides a brief overview of the main findings of the 2019 NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey. Several points should be kept in mind when considering the findings.

A total of ten post-school destinations are defined from responses to a number of items relating to participation in further education and current employment. This classification system is a hierarchical classification system, which prioritises education related post-school destinations over participation in employment. As such, it represents a young person's main destination since leaving school. A full discussion of the classification system can be found in the technical report.

All data are weighted to match relevant population parameters. Survey weighted t-tests have been conducted to assess differences between subgroups and between survey waves. Analyses were conducted in R (R Core, 2017) using the survey package (Lumley, 2017). Results reported as “different” imply that a statistically significant difference at a 99 per cent confidence level has been established. This level has been used due to the large sample sizes.

In some cases values may differ from the apparent sum of their component elements. This is due to the effects of rounding.

Where appropriate, comparisons have been made to previous waves of this survey. Field of education was coded using Australian Standard Classification of Education (Australian Bureau of Statistics catalogue number 1272.0). Occupation was coded to the Australian and New Zealand Standard Classification of Occupations (Version 1.2, Australian Bureau of Statistics catalogue number 1220.0).

For further information about the survey background and method, please refer to the 2019 technical report.

Acknowledgements

The 2019 NSW Post-School Destinations and Experiences Survey was conducted in partnership with the Social Research Centre, a wholly owned of the subsidiary of the Australian National University. The survey is supported by the NSW Education Standards Authority (NESA), Catholic Schools NSW and the Association of Independent Schools NSW. We thank them for their assistance and input into the research. We particularly thank the numerous young people and their parents, carers and/or guardians who gave their time and shared their experiences.

 

Footnotes

1A total of ten post-school destinations are defined from responses to a number of items relating to participation in further education and current employment. This classification system is a hierarchical classification system, which prioritises education related post-school destinations over participation in employment. As such, it represents a young person's main destination since leaving school.

2A detailed outline of the survey method, including eligibility to and the selection process can be found in the technical report.

3Parental socioeconomic status (SES) is an individual measure of SES derived from students’ recollection of their parent(s) main occupation and highest level of education. Further information about its derivation can be found in the technical report.

 

 The impact of bushfires on student wellbeing and student learning (PDF, 1.3MB)

The impact of bushfires on student wellbeing and student learning (PDF, 1.3MB)

The catastrophic bushfires that occurred across NSW in late 2019 to early 2020 have had a significant impact on school operations. In response to the fires, the NSW Premier declared a State of Emergency on three separate occasions and the bushfires received wide media coverage both in Australia and internationally. A large number of schools temporarily ceased operation during the bushfire crisis. In February 2020, the NSW Department of Education formed a new Bushfire Relief Strategy Directorate charged with developing a strategy that provides direction for managing future bushfire seasons. The strategy outlines the department’s approach to assisting schools to recover from bushfires across the short, medium and long term.

This paper aims to support the strategy by bringing together the available research on the potential impact of natural disasters on student wellbeing and student learning, contextualised to school education in NSW. The first section describes the research on students’ distress and mental health in the short-term and long-term stages after bushfires and other natural disasters. The second section looks at the potential impact of bushfires on student learning and considers the implications for NSW schools in relation to student learning, student assessment, and disaster education.


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The elements of effective professional development (PDF, 700kB)

The elements of effective professional development (PDF, 700kB)

 

Summary

Professional development of teachers is a career-long process

Teacher professional development begins with initial teacher education and continues until retirement, and it is generally agreed by teachers and other education professionals to be a good investment of education dollars.

Professional development is available to all teachers in NSW.

Professional development positively impacts student outcomes

One of the most cited meta-analyses looking at the effect of professional development on student outcomes calculates an effect size of 0.541. It claims that average students would increase their achievement by 21 percentile points if their teachers participated in quality professional development.

However, a question arises:

In teaching what are the elements of professional development that improve outcomes for students?

Available research reveals that the following elements of professional development have a positive impact on student outcomes:

  • A focus on teachers' content knowledge of the subject matter.
  • A focus on teachers' knowledge of how students learn.
  • Alignment to clear and specific contextual goals
  • Support from school leaders.

There is insufficient evidence on the effectiveness of the following elements of professional development:

  • The appropriate number of contact hours or delivery timeframes for professional development programs.
  • The effectiveness of professional learning communities.

This is not to say that professional development programs of a longer duration and professional learning communities do not work to improve student outcomes. However, there is no conclusive evidence to definitively support these elements.

More evidence is needed

Many studies investigate the impact of professional development on teacher knowledge, teaching practice and teacher satisfaction. Far fewer take the extra step of examining the impact of professional development on student achievement.

There is a clear need for further research that focuses on which elements of professional development have the greatest impact on student learning outcomes.


 

1Yoon et al 2007, ‘Reviewing the evidence on how teacher professional development affects student achievement’, Issues & Answers Report REL 2007-No. 033: 14.

Friday, 24 April 2020

What works best: 2020 update

What works best: 2020 update (PDF, 1.6MB)

What works best: 2020 update (PDF, 1.6MB)

Access our other 'What works best' resources

 

Summary

This paper is an update to our 2014 publication. The 2020 update outlines eight quality teaching practices that are known to support school improvement and enhance the learning outcomes of our students. The themes are not an exhaustive list of effective practices, but are a useful framework for teachers and school leaders to consider when deciding how to tackle student improvement.

The eight themes identified as likely to make the biggest difference to our students are:

1. High expectations

Teachers’ beliefs about their students influence how they teach and interact with them. High expectations are linked with higher performance for all students. The reverse can also be true. Students may achieve less than their full potential if expectations of their ability are low.

2. Explicit teaching 

Explicit teaching practices involve teachers clearly showing students what to do and how to do it, rather than having students discover that information themselves. Students who experience explicit teaching practices make greater learning gains than students who do not experience these practices.

3. Effective feedback

Effective feedback provides students with relevant, explicit, ongoing, constructive and actionable information about their performance against learning outcomes from the syllabus.

4. Use of data to inform practice

Teachers use data to check and understand where their students are in their learning and to plan what to do next. Effective analysis of student data helps teachers identify areas where students’ learning needs may require additional attention and development.

5. Assessment

High quality student assessment helps us know that learning is taking place. Assessment is most effective when it is an integral part of teaching and learning programs.

6. Classroom management

Classroom management is important for creating the conditions for learning. Effective classroom management minimises and addresses all levels of disengagement and disruptive behaviours.

7. Wellbeing

At school, the practices that support student wellbeing involve creating a safe environment; ensuring connectedness; engaging students in their learning; and promoting social and emotional skills.

8. Collaboration 

Professional collaboration allows best practice to be identified and shared across classrooms. Effective collaboration explicitly aims to improve teacher practices and student outcomes. 

For more information

Our What works best in practice resource provides strategies to support teachers to implement the eight themes in the classroom.

The School Excellence Framework supports school leaders take a planned and whole-school approach to improvement. The eight themes closely align with the School Excellence Framework.

Evaluation of the Rural and Remote Education Blueprint - final report (PDF, 2MB)

Download the Evaluation of the Rural and Remote Education Blueprint - final report (PDF, 2MB)

 

Background

Research shows that students in rural and remote (non‑metropolitan) areas of NSW tend to underperform on major educational indicators when compared to students in metropolitan locations. To address this disparity, the NSW Minister for Education released Rural and Remote Education: A Blueprint for Action in November 2013. The blueprint committed $80 million over four years to implement a broad set of actions in four focus areas: quality early childhood education, great teachers and school leaders, curriculum access for all, and effective partnerships and connections.

 

Evaluation

This final evaluation report examines the implementation and impact of actions contained in the blueprint, using available data up to and including 2017. It also examines important education performance indicators to assess any changes in the magnitude of the gaps between rural and remote students and metropolitan students since the launch of the blueprint.

 

Main findings

This evaluation has found that:
• Gaps in NAPLAN scores and school attendance between rural and remote students and metropolitan students have not reduced since the introduction of the blueprint. The gaps between remote students and metropolitan students have narrowed on Best Start and retention to Year 12. The gaps between provincial students and metropolitan students have not reduced on these measures.
• The 50% rental subsidy introduced at some fourpoint schools had no meaningful impact on teacher retention.
• Aurora College provides an important opportunity for gifted and talented students. Enrolments have grown and issues related to timetabling are being addressed.
• Education Networks and Networked Specialist Centres (NSCs) have had little impact. At the time of the evaluation, Education Networks had not been used in the more substantial ways originally envisaged, for example to increase community engagement or share budgets. Some NSC facilitators were unsure of their overall effectiveness or were confused about the scope of the role. Since the evaluation, the role of NSCs has been clarified and the department believes they will demonstrate value into the future.
• Enrolments of 4 and 5 year old Aboriginal children in community preschools in rural and remote areas increased by 45% between 2013 and 2017. Enrolments of non-Aboriginal 4 and 5 year old children from low income families increased by 8%.

 

Related reports

The interim monitoring and evaluation report was published in 2016.

 


 

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Process evaluation of the Refugee Student Counselling Support Team (PDF, 7MB)

Process evaluation of the Refugee Student Counselling Support Team (PDF, 7MB)

The information on this page is also available as a one page summary (PDF, 109kB)

 


 

Evaluation background

The Refugee Student Counselling Support Team (RSCST) is a small Sydney-based team that provides specialised support to NSW public schools that have refugee students enrolled. Its main work areas include:

  • tailored professional learning
  • targeted counselling in complex cases and additional support for the school counselling service
  • advice and consultation
  • assistance connecting refugee students and their families to other local supports.

CESE conducted a process evaluation which involved:

  • 43 in-depth interviews with RSCST team members, school based staff, internal and external providers of refugee services
  • development of four case studies to illustrate good practice
  • a review of activity data and self-evaluation data collected by the team.

 

Main findings

The RSCST has a well-established service model that has been refined over time since its inception in 2016. The team’s reach has been broad and it has carried out an increasing volume of work in each of its core areas.

Capacity building has been the key priority from the outset and occurs through an array of professional learning workshops and via side-by-side work with school counselling staff. An increasing proportion of the team’s time has been spent providing targeted counselling support for refugee students with complex needs. The team also conducts group support work that is highly valued by schools. The team has established a contact number that is manned throughout the week for school enquiries and has developed strong local partnerships with internal and external refugee services.

School staff consistently observed that the team’s work has led to improvements in refugee students’ social and emotional skills, a reduced incidence and intensity of negative behaviours, and an increased readiness to learn. They described improvements to the wellbeing of students’ families, stemming from increased trust and confidence in school staff. Further, many school staff felt more confident and supported to put into practice the skills and strategies learnt from the RSCST’s capacity-building sessions and side-by-side counselling support. RSCST staff are particularly valued for their expertise in trauma-informed practice. The team’s collaboration with other refugee services has improved the set of services available to schools and to refugee students.

Recruitment has been a key challenge, and the team has often operated with less than its full complement of eight staff.

The nature of work requires a combination of specialist skills and personal attributes that are not easily found. The team is also working on increasing schools’ awareness of the team’s responsibilities and range of services, and on managing schools’ expectations of support. An ongoing challenge is deciding how to prioritise the team’s limited time most effectively across the state as demand for its services continues to grow.

Trauma-informed practice in schools: An explainer (PDF, 570kB)trauma-informed-discussion-guide

Trauma-informed practice in schools: An explainer (PDF, 722kB)

Discussion guide (PDF, 192kB)

This explainer briefly summarises the evidence on trauma-informed practice within an educational context. It is intended as a brief introduction to the topic for teachers, principals and other school staff. 

The accompanying discussion guide has been created to support principals, executive, teachers and school staff to unpack and reflect on the explainer, and to explore implications for their schools. 

workforce profile 2017

The Workforce profile of the NSW teaching profession 2017 (PDF, 5MB) includes data that details teachers' characteristics and experiences from entry into initial teacher education through to exit from the profession. The report provides information on both government and non-government school teachers, early childhood teachers and teachers in training.

The 2017 report builds on the data presented in the following reports:

classroom management lit review     

Classroom management: Creating and maintaining positive learning environments (PDF, 2.1MB)

Classroom management poster

Classroom management infographic

Classroom management professional learning discussion guide

 

Summary

The literature review defines classroom management and provides a brief overview of classroom management research. It also describes the characteristics of effective classroom management strategies and how schools can best support teachers when implementing them.

Classroom management refers to the strategies teachers use to support and facilitate learning in the classroom. Effective classroom management is important for student achievement because it creates an environment that minimises disruptions, maximises instruction time, and encourages students to engage in learning.

The evidence suggests that classroom management requires both preventative and responsive strategies, with an emphasis on preventative strategies.

Preventative strategies are proactive and encourage students to be on-task, motivated to learn, and prosocial. Effective preventative strategies include:

  • creating and maintaining a positive classroom climate
  • using structured instruction to engage students in learning
  • explicitly teaching students rules and routines
  • offering pre-corrections to remind students of expectations
  • using active supervision in the classroom.

Responsive strategies include corrective responses to inappropriate behaviours. They support students to re-engage in learning. Effective corrective practices:

  • identify why the student is disengaged or being disruptive
  • ensure the student understands the corrective response
  • are consistent and expected
  • are given calmly
  • are proportionate to the level of behaviour displayed.
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