Language, Learning & Literacy (L3) is a pedagogical approach to teaching reading and writing (not a collection of curriculum resources or a programmed scope and sequence). L3 Kindergarten was developed first as a Tier 2 intervention to provide personalised instruction for individuals and small groups of students within a whole class setting. L3 Stage One was developed later not as a tiered intervention, but as a professional learning program for Stage One teachers.
The aim of this review was to examine the design, content and implementation of L3. We used three methods to achieve this: document review, quantitative survey analysis and qualitative interview analysis. This review does not include an outcome evaluation.
In this review, we addressed seven research questions:
Since 2017, the department has undertaken a range of strategic activities and developed a suite of new resource to support schools with early literacy instruction. These are available via the links below.
Authors: Jon Quach, Sharon Goldfeld, Janet Clinton, Tanya Serry, Libby Smith and Anneke Grobler
Evaluator company/business: Murdoch Children’s Research Institute and the University of Melbourne for Evidence for Learning
URL or PDF: The MiniLit Learning Impact Fund evaluation report (PDF opens in new window) is available from the Evidence for Learning website.
Summary: This report examined the efficacy of the MiniLit intervention in improving reading skills among Year 1 students who were struggling to learn to read. MiniLit is a prescriptive, synthetic phonics intervention program led by tutors that focus on improving children's word reading. A total of 237 students from nine schools participated with 119 students randomly allocated to the MiniLit group and 118 students to the control group.This study found no statistical evidence that the MiniLit intervention resulted in increased improvement in the primary outcomes of reading accuracy, rate or comprehension over that of a control group receiving usual learning support after 12 months. However, it did find evidence of improved secondary outcomes for skills that underpin reading. The evaluation also identified costs associated with delivering MiniLit and implementation factors influencing program outcomes.
This audio paper summarises four evidence-based practices to improve student literacy and numeracy outcomes at school.
1. Intervene early and maintain the focus.
2. Know what students can do and target teaching accordingly.
3. Have clear and transparent learning goals
4. Focus on teacher professional learning that improves the teaching of literacy and numeracy.
The paper also examines the research on the importance of literacy and numeracy skills to individuals and to society more broadly, including employment outcomes, the economy, social inclusion, health, and other variables.
This course allows educators to engage with contemporary literature on literacy and numeracy and connect it to their own practice.
Mode of delivery: online
Accredited hours: 1.5
myPL course code: RG03814
Themes: literacy and numeracy
Learn more about the Literacy and numeracy publication.
Assessing Literacy and Numeracy (ALAN) is a suite of applications developed as part of the NSW Literacy and Numeracy Strategy 2017-2020.
The ALAN portal directs staff to online tools including PLAN2, Best Start Kindergarten Assessment (BSKA) and Best Start Year 7.
For more information on how to use ALAN applications, visit the ALAN helpdesk site.
Full report Executive summary
Evaluator company/business: Erebus International
URL or PDF: Download the Evaluation of the NSW Literacy and Numeracy Action Plan 2012-2016 (PDF, 2.93MB) and Executive summary (PDF, 519kB)
Summary: The Literacy and Numeracy Action Plan 2012-2016 was developed to address the widespread inequalities in learning outcomes known to exist from the earliest years of schooling in NSW schools serving low socioeconomic status communities. This report presents the findings of an evaluation of NSW Literacy and Numeracy Action Plan 2012-2016. It examines the extent to which student literacy and numeracy improved, factors that may have led to any improvement, and the extent to which any improvement achieved was cost-effective.
Authors: Alison Wallace, Benita Power, Lee Holloway, Chloe Harkness
Evaluator Company/Business: Urbis
URL or PDF: Download the External evaluation of the selected NPLN NSW Programs: Evaluation of Focus on Reading 3-6 final report (PDF, 1.5MB)
Summary: The evaluation aimed to assess the effectiveness of the Focus on Reading 3-6 program, to identify the extent to which the program was operating as intended and to assess whether the program had improved the educational outcomes of Aboriginal students. Focus on Reading 3-6 was designed to provide professional learning support to classroom teachers in a school or community of schools. The main goals of the program were to increase teacher knowledge about how to develop fluent readers and to develop comprehension and vocabulary skills based on effective evidence-based practices. The evaluation methodology comprised a knowledge review, scoping of data sets, site visits, and stakeholder interviews and surveys. In both the quantitative and qualitative research, the great majority of teachers and school staff reported increased knowledge and skills in teaching reading. Gains in mean reading scores were also observed for all student cohorts at Focus on Reading 3-6 schools.
The Literacy and Numeracy Action Plan 2012-2016 was developed to address the widespread inequalities in learning outcomes known to exist from the earliest years of schooling in NSW schools serving low socio-economic status communities. This report presents the findings of an evaluation of NSW Literacy and Numeracy Action Plan 2012-2016. It examines the extent to which student literacy and numeracy improved, factors that may have led to any improvement, and the extent to which any improvement achieved was cost-effective.
To help share the evidence, Effective reading is available as a summary poster (PDF, 324kB).
Reading is a foundational, yet complex cognitive skill upon which other skills are built. Early success in reading is a powerful predictor of later achievement in a range of other academic areas. Individuals without literacy skills are at risk of being unable to participate in the workforce or engage fully in civic and social life.
Since 2000, there have been major reviews of the teaching of reading in Australia, the United Kingdom and the United States. These reviews, along with other research, have consistently identified five key components of effective reading programs: phonemic awareness, phonics, fluency, vocabulary and comprehension. The CESE literature review ‘Effective reading instruction in the early years of school’ summarises this research and concludes that, to be most successful, the five key components must be taught explicitly, sequentially and systematically.
The ability to hear the sounds in spoken words and understand that words are made up of sequences of sounds.
Phonics instruction connects phonemes with written letters so that the reader can transfer knowledge of sounds to the printed word. Synthetic phonics’ is the approach with the most robust evidence base.
The ability to read quickly and naturally with accuracy and expression. Fluency contains the skill of automaticity which allows a reader to recognise words quickly.
When children ‘sound out’ a word, their brain connects the pronunciation of a sequence of sounds to a word in their vocabulary to find a logical match. If a match is not created because the word they are reading is not in their vocabulary, comprehension is interrupted.
The understanding and interpretation of what is read. Comprehension requires having a sufficient vocabulary.
URL or PDF: Download Reading Recovery: a sector-wide analysis (PDF, 1.23MB).
Summary: The primary aims of this study were to examine the impact of Reading Recovery (RR) on students’ literacy outcomes at the end of Year 1 and whether any benefits associated with participating in RR are sustained over the longer term to Year 3. This evaluation was conducted state-wide across NSW government schools. It focussed on identifying the impact of RR on student outcomes compared to similar students who attended a school that did not offer RR. The study employed a quasi-experimental design drawing on retrospective data that detailed participation in RR and student outcomes in the early years of school. The results showed some evidence that RR has a modest short-term effect on reading skills among the lowest performing students. However, RR does not appear to be an effective intervention for students that begin Year 1 with more proficient literacy skills. In the longer-term, there was no evidence of any positive effects of RR on students’ reading performance in Year 3.